Tuesday, 12 June 2012

Home Made, DIY Dog, Cat Food Recipes - Grain Free for the Health of Your Dog, Cat, Grain in if you Must



Many of the commercially made dry dog food (kibble) products and cat food products contain multiple toxins, carcinogens, allergens and ingredients that provide your dog with poor source nutrition. Switching your dog or cat from commercially made, highly processed dog kibble to homemade dog food can be of great benefit to your dog’s and cat's overall health. Below are a few very nutritious, simple to make dog food recipes I created for the health and well-being of my dogs. The ingredients used are selected to support your dog's and cat's overall health, boost his/her immune system, prevent cancer, support oral health, heart health and more. When purchasing the ingredients used in the recipes below, you can decide whether you want to go organic or not...even if you do not go organic you can be sure that the food you make - based on the recipes below, will be packed with good nutrition. You can couple this recipe with a healthy, all-natural snack food for your dog or with a healthy dog-friendly smoothie

The recipe provides options for:
  • One - a fully cooked food recipe;
  • Two - a blend of cooked and fresh food recipe
  • Three - a raw food recipe.
It is up to you which option you choose to make.

The recipe is appropriate for:
  • Puppies;
  • Teenage Dogs;
  • Adult Dogs, and;
  • Senior Dogs, and;
  • By adding additional taurine is also good for kittens and cats.
The only reason the commercial pet food industry has established a sales niche for puppy food, v.s adult dog food, vs senior dog food is because the adult dog food produced by the pet food industry is often deficient in good source nutrition. 

While an adult dog may be able to sustain such deficiencies for longer periods of time - dogs that are more vulnerable - such as puppies, will show the effects of deficiencies more quickly, the same can be said for many senior dogs. 

As well, the pet food industry has created a niche for 'weight control' dog foods for adult and senior dogs. Another invention made necessary by the inadequacies of  pet food industry products. A dog that is on a species appropriate diet is much less likely to become overweight than a dog that is fed a nutrient poor and grain-based diet. Grain gets converted by the body into sugar very quickly - this spikes insulin levels and has a collective effect of creating constant hunger in the dog. In addition a dog that is fed a diet that is primarily comprised of  fillers and poor source carbohydrates must consume a much larger quantity of that 'food' in order to obtain actual nutritive value. The combination of these two facts creates obesity in dogs, just as it does in humans. If a dog is fed a truly good diet - that same diet can retain its value unchanged throughout the life-span of the dog - from puppy, hood to adult to senior. 

If you need your dog to loose weight - the best approach is to feed your dog a truly good diet, cut back on carbohydrates, increase protein and good source fat (i.e. coconut oil  a good source omega-6 fatty acid, a high quality omega-3 fatty acid such as Norwegian cod liver oil, Wild Alaskan salmon oil or Norwegian krill oil), introduce appropriate cooked, frozen-thawed and fresh veggies and fruit prepared properly to maximize absorption of nutrients, and turmeric. 

For puppies up to 6 months of age exclude the garlic from the recipe. Once puppy is 6 months of age add the garlic to the recipe. For kittens and cats leave the garlic out of the recipe. If you are going to include garlic in your dog's diet make sure you read this article for a through look at the many health benefits, daily dosage, cautions and drug interactions for garlic. 
 

How Much Will You Need to Feed to Your Dog?…

Before we get to the recipes - people often ask 'how much of this recipe should I feed to my dog or cat?' My recommendation regarding 'amount to feed' is as follows, first preceded by the following comments...

The amount to feed your dog(s) or cat(s):
  1. Varies per the individual dog or cat - as I explain further just below, and;
  2. Varies depending on how you choose to prepare the ingredients - I discuss this further below under options for preparation.
  • Just as each human has a different life style, different metabolism, so too for each dog. 
    • While two dogs may be the same size;
    • The same breed;
    • Have the same level of physical and mental activity;
    • One of the dogs may require slightly more food or less food than the other. 
  •  I am going to provide you with a guideline, and from that make your own adjustments to suit the individual dog.
Scenario One -  you are currently feeding your dog a commercially prepared dry dog kibble which lists grain, soy, corn, etc. as the first ingredient see the example provided just below...
  • Start by feeding your dog 1/4 cup less of the homemade dog food;
  • See how that goes and make any required adjustments to suit.
Example - GROUND WHOLE CORN, MEAT AND BONE MEAL, CORN GLUTEN MEAL, ANIMAL FAT (PRESERVED WITH BHA/CITRIC ACID), SOYBEAN MEAL, GROUND WHOLE WHEAT, BREWERS RICE, DRIED PLAIN BEET PULP, NATURAL FLAVOR, SALT, VEGETABLE OIL ([SOURCE OF LINOLEIC ACID] PRESERVED WITH BHA/BHT), POTASSIUM CHLORIDE, VITAMINS (CHOLINE CHLORIDE, a-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE [SOURCE OF VITAMIN E], NIACIN, BIOTIN, d-CALCIUM PANTOTHENATE, RIBOFLAVIN SUPPLEMENT [VITAMIN B2], PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE, VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENT, VITAMIN B12 SUPPLEMENT, THIAMINE MONONITRATE [VITAMIN B1], VITAMIN D3 SUPPLEMENT) MINERALS (ZINC SULFATE, ZINC PROTEINATE, COPPER SULFATE, POTASSIUM IODIDE, COPPER PROTEINATE, MANGANESE PROTEINATE), ADDED FD&C COLORS (RED 40, YELLOW 5, BLUE 2).
Scenario Two -  you are currently feeding your dog a commercially prepared dry dog kibble which looks similar to one of the three examples provided just below...
  • Start by feeding your dog 1/8 cup less of the homemade dog food;
  • See how that goes and make any required adjustments to suit.
Example One - Chicken Meal, Whole Grain Wheat, Whole Grain Sorghum, Brewers Rice, Brown Rice, Whole Grain Corn, Pork Fat, Chicken Liver Flavor, Soybean Oil, Corn Gluten Meal, Cracked Pearled Barley, Dried Beet Pulp, Lactic Acid, Potassium Chloride, Pork Liver Flavor, Flaxseed, L-Lysine, Choline Chloride, vitamins (Vitamin E Supplement, L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), Niacin Supplement, Thiamine Mononitrate, Vitamin A Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Riboflavin Supplement, Folic Acid, Vitamin D3 Supplement), Iodized Salt, minerals (Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Copper Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Calcium Iodate, Sodium Selenite), Taurine, Oat Fiber, Mixed Tocopherols added to retain freshness, Citric Acid added to retain freshness, L-carnitine, Phosphoric Acid, Beta-Carotene, Rosemary Extract. Dried Apples, Dried Broccoli, Dried Carrots, Dried Cranberries, Dried Peas.

Example Two - Chicken (natural source of glucosamine), brewers rice, corn gluten meal, whole grain corn, poultry by-product meal (natural source of glucosamine), whole grain wheat, animal fat preserved with mixed-tocopherols (form of Vitamin E), soy flakes, soybean meal, animal digest, glycerin, calcium phosphate, caramel colour, calcium carbonate, salt, potassium chloride, choline chloride, Vitamin E supplement, zinc sulphate, L-Lysine monohydrochloride, ferrous sulphate, sulphur, manganese sulphate, niacin, Vitamin A supplement, calcium pantothenate, thiamine mononitrate, copper sulphate, riboflavin supplement, Vitamin B-12 supplement, pyridoxine hydrochloride, garlic oil, folic acid, Vitamin D-3 supplement, calcium iodate, biotin, menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of Vitamin K activity), sodium selenite. T-4154-C

Example Three - Chicken By-Product Meal (Natural source of Chondroitin Sulfate and Glucosamine), Corn Meal, Ground Whole Grain Sorghum, Ground Whole Grain Barley, Fish Meal (source of fish oil), Chicken, Chicken Fat (preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Dried Beet Pulp, Chicken Flavor, Dried Egg Product, Potassium Chloride, Brewers Dried Yeast, Salt, Sodium Hexametaphosphate, Fructooligosaccharides, Fish Oil (preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Calcium Carbonate, Flax Meal, Choline Chloride, Minerals (Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Potassium Iodide, Cobalt Carbonate), Vitamin E Supplement, Dried Chicken Cartilage (Natural source of Chondroitin Sulfate and Glucosamine), DL-Methionine, Vitamins (Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin A Acetate, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Thiamine Mononitrate (source of vitamin B1), Vitamin B12 Supplement, Niacin, Riboflavin Supplement (source of vitamin B2), Inositol, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (source of vitamin B6), Vitamin D3 Supplement, Folic Acid), Beta-Carotene, L-Carnitine, Marigold, Citric Acid, Rosemary Extract.


Scenario Three -  you are currently feeding your dog a commercially prepared dry dog kibble which looks similar to the example provided just below...
  • Start by feeding your dog the same amount of the homemade food as you are currently feeding to your dog in the dry dog food;
  • See how that goes and make any required adjustments to suit.

Deboned chicken, chicken meal, green peas, turkey meal, chicken liver oil, field beans, red lentils, whole potato, deboned turkey, whole egg, deboned walleye, sun-cured alfalfa, pea fibre, chicken liver, herring oil, whole apples, whole pears, sweet potato, pumpkin, butternut squash, parsnips, carrots, spinach greens, cranberries, blueberries, kelp, chicory root, juniper berries, angelica root, marigold flowers, sweet fennel, peppermint leaf, lavender, rosemary.

Just Before we get to the recipe...

1.0 If your dog or cat has...
  •  Acid Reflux - GERD
  • Bladder or Kidney Crystals or Stones (uroliths)
  • Colitis or other Inflammatory Bowel Disease -
    • Adjustments to recipe are provided below;
  • GME
  • Food Allergies -
  • Fatty Lipomas -
  • Weight Management Issues - 
  • Urinary Tract Infection - 
2.0 Understanding the Ingredients

Make sure you read all of the links provided in the recipe below. The links are provided to ensure your better understanding of the ingredients as pertains to important information such as health benefits, selection of appropriate type/quality, cautions and interactions, etc.

3.0 What you Use to Cook Food in and Feed Food To Your Dog and Cat Matters...

If at all possible do not use: Teflon coated pans and pots and do not feed your dog his/her food in metal bowls - particularly aluminum bowls and plastic bowls. The same is true for water - no aluminum or plastic bowls. Aluminum and the many carcinogenic substances in plastic gradually make their way into your dog's and cat's system via the food bowl. This increases your dog's and cat's toxic load and can cause damage to overall  physical and mental health - brain health, GI tract health, organ health leading/contributing to behavioural and major health problems.

Grain Free…


Red Meat or Poultry, Squash or Sweet Potato, Cottage Cheese, Spinach, Cruciferous Vegetables, Fruit, Herbs…
There are several ways that you can make this recipe - the choice is up to you. Choose one of the following preparation methods. Ingredients/measurements and further directions are provided just below preperation options...
  • Option One is based on cooking all of the ingredients as you would a stew;
  • Option Two is a combination of cooked and raw food recipe;
  • Option Three is a raw food recipe;
  • Options 2 and 3 have no water added, option one has water added.
    • When you add water to any food you dilute the nutritional density of the food;
    • Therefore, if you make the recipe based on preparation option one you will need to feed your dog or cat a slightly greater volume of the food than if you used preparation Option Two or Three.
  • If you grind the ingredients to a fine meal in a food processor you end up with a dense end product; 
  • If you coarsely chop ingredients (cut ingredients into larger pieces as you would do if making a stew) the resulting end product is less dense;
    • So, if you make the recipe using the cooked stew method with course chopped ingredients you will need to feed your dog or cat a larger amount of the resulting food;
    •  If you have not added any water to the recipe and have finely minced the ingredients you will feed your dog or cat a smaller amount of the resulting food.
1.0 Options - Cooked, Cooked & Fresh or Raw Food
Option One - Fully Cooked Stew
  • Step 1 - Combine all ingredients, place in a pot or slow cooker (crock pot);
  • Step 2 - Add just enough water to cover the ingredients;
  • Step 3 - Simmer on lowest possible heat until fully cooked or slow cook in a crock pot;
  • Step 4 - Store in the refrigerator or freeze as desired;
  • Step 5 - Add toppings at meal time as directed at the end of the recipe below.
  • The photo shown at the top of this page is an example of the food prepared using this method.

Option Two - A Blend of Cooked and Fresh Ingredients, no
                     added water
  • Step 1 - Simmer meat in olive oil on lowest possible heat until fully cooked, once cooked finely mince the meat or leave in chunks as per your preference, and set aside;
  • Step 2 - Steam or cook, mash or cube the squash or sweet potato, and set aside;
  • Step 3 - If using legumes (lentils or chickpeas) soak, cook and mash or puree, or if using canned legumes simply drain and mash or puree, and set aside;
  • Step 4 - If using fresh vegetables lightly steam the vegetables then chop, mash or puree, and set aside. If using frozen vegetables just thaw enough to finely chop or puree, and set aside;
  • Step 5 - If including fresh or frozen fruit - mash or puree the fruit, and then set aside;
  • Step 6 - In a large bowl mix all ingredients together (see recipe below for a full list of ingredients);
  • Step 7 - Store in the refrigerator or freeze as desired;
  • Step 8 - Add toppings at meal time as directed at the end of the recipe below.


Option Three - Raw Food, no added water
  • Step 1 - Don't cook the meat, leave raw - for this option use fresh, never frozen meat, properly process/handled raw meat;
  • Step 2 - Steam or lightly cook, mash or cube the squash or sweet potato, and set aside;
  • Step 3 - If using legumes (lentils or chickpeas) soak, cook and mash or puree, or if using canned legumes simply drain and mash or puree, and set aside;
  • Step 4 - If using fresh vegetables lightly steam the vegetables then chop, mash or puree, and set aside. If using frozen vegetables just thaw enough to finely chop or puree, and set aside;
  • Step 5 - If including fresh or frozen fruit - mash or puree the fruit, and then set aside;
  • Step 6 - In a large bowl mix all ingredients together (see recipe below for a full list of ingredients);
  • Step 7 - Freeze into patties;
  • Step 8 - Add toppings at meal time as directed at the end of the recipe below.
  • Caution regarding raw food - If your dog or cat has never eaten raw meat before, make sure you introduce raw food into their diet very slowly - failure to do so will cause diarrhea and or vomiting. The stomach acids required to digest raw meat or much stronger than what is required to digest 'dead' (cooked) food. You must give your dog's, cat's system time to slowly adjust. To introduce raw food to the diet start out by offering a tiny piece of the raw food as a treat between meals. Do this for at least a week after which you can very slowly start to replace a tiny portion of the existing food in your dog's or cat's meal bowl with an equally small portion of the raw food. Continue this process of replacement over the span of several weeks until the old food is completely replaced by the raw food. Transition very slowly, if at any point during the transition your dog or cat starts to show signs of an upset stomach you are transitioning to quickly.
I use preparation Option Two. I make a very large batch of food - 40 pounds to 50 pounds of food at a time. I use a food grade pail with a capacity of about 70 pounds to mix all the pre-ground ingredients together. A batch of food this size lasts me about ten days as I am feeding eleven (11) dogs (3 German Shepherds, a Boxer x Pit Bull, an Australian Shepherd, a Cocker Spaniel, a Sheltie, a Fox Hound x Beagle, 2 Pomeranians and a Chihuahua.

Using preparation Option Two - here is what a large batch in preparation looks like. Mixing is finished and I am just starting to pack the food into containers. Each container holds enough food to feed my pack for about 3 days. The containers will be put in the freezer until I need to use them. You can see from the photo below that this is a very thick and dense food - with a texture like a meat loaf - except most of the ingredients in this food are fresh and raw - not cooked.



Here is a look at the food at serving time...you can see how dense and thick I make it, you can see there is no liquid. As I use a lot of turmeric in the recipe, the food has a gold tinge

And ready to eat, garnished with cottage cheese and a piece of cheddar cheese on top - top view...


 Side view...




2.0 Ingredients
  • Protein, Fat and essential nutrients - Meat: 
    • 1.5 lb (minimum) to 2 lbs ground or finely chopped 1meat:
      • Poultry - chicken, turkey, duck, etc. bones removed, or:
      • Fish - wild Alaskan salmon, mackerel, sardines, or;
      • Red meat - beef, bison, deer, etc. 
        • If your dog has food sensitivities don’t mix proteins, choose one source of meat protein per batch of food;
        • don't skim the fat off - the fat from the meat is an essential source of nutrition for your dog and cat; 
        • For kittens and cats don't skimp - use the full quantity of protein (not the minimum);
        •  Note if your dog or cat has an inflammatory disease such as colitis make sure you use lean meats only;
  •  Protein, Fat and essential nutrients - Cottage Cheese:
  • Protein, carbohydrates, fiber and essential nutrients - Legumes:
    • 2 cups (16 oz):
      • Lentils - use a combination of yellow, brown or green lentils and/or cooked mashed chickpeas (see note 2)
      • For best results:
        • Pre-soak the uncooked lentils in water for at least 3 hours;
        • After soaking the uncooked lentils, drain the water (discard the water) and use a food processor or bender to mash/finely chop the softened lentils;
        • After soaking and mashing/chopping the lentils are ready to be cooked with the other ingredients together in a pot or pressure cooker.  
        • Note:
          • If you would prefer to leave legumes out of the recipe simply substitute with 2 cups of additional meat - but be careful, if your dog or cat has been accustomed to a high carbohydrate diet, increase the amount of protein/vs carbohydrates over the space of several weeks as stomach acids need time to adjust.
          • If your dog or cat has an inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis replace the legumes with low fat meat; or organic soy and a small amount of finely ground almonds;
          • If you prefer not to use legumes than replace the legumes with additional meat, and/or a small amount of ground peanuts or pine nuts and pumpkin seeds;
  • Protein and Fat - Additional Optional Ingredient:
    • 2 eggs 
  •  Fat:
    • 1/8 cup olive oil or coconut oil
    • Note:
      • If your dog or cat has an inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis leave the olive oil and/or coconut oil out of the recipe.
  • Carbohydrate, essential nutrients, fiber, antioxidents:
    • 2 cups:
      • Sweet potato, or  
      • Squash;
      • Pumpkin;
      • Turnip;
      • Rutabaga;
      • or a combination of the above;
    • 2 cups:
      • Vegetables and fruit, fresh or frozen finely chopped:
        •  Carrots,broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower;
        •  Apples, pears, cherries or berries (i.e. cranberries, strawberries, blue berries, black berries, etc.);
    • 10 oz:
      • Fresh or frozen chopped spinach 
      • Note:
        • If your dog or cat has an inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis do not use any cruciferous vegetables. 
          •  Potato and squash are fine to use, sweet potato is fine fore some dogs and cats with colitis;
          • Spinach or kale are fine to use;
          • Cranberries are fine to use.
  • Herbs
    • 4 cloves 3garlic, chopped or minced (do not use for cats, do not use for dogs or cats with inflammatory bowl disease such as colitis)
      • As the healthful properties of garlic are degraded when the garlic is heated, I prefer to leave the garlic out of the recipe and instead add fresh minced garlic to the food at meal time;
        • If you choose to use fresh garlic as I do;
          • Mince, slice or chop the garlic 10 to 15 minutes before feeding as this provides  time for the beneficial properties of the garlic to develop;
            • One hour after mincing, slicing etc. the beneficial propertied of the garlic begin to degrade so use within an hour of cutting;
          • Daily dosage is 1 tsp for every 30 lbs of body weight;
          • You can read more about garlic here.
      •  If you are making this recipe for kittens or cats leave the garlic out of the recipe!;
    • For the following herbs -you can choose to use all of the herbs, some of the herbs or leave them out of the recipe - its up to you...
    • If you are using the Cooked/Fresh or Raw preparation method for this recipe...
      • Mix all of the herbs and spices together in a bowl or small pot;
      • Using a kettle boil some water just as you would do to make tea;
      • Add just enough of the boiled water to the herb mixture - just enough water to cover the herb mixture;
        • Stir the mixture - it will absorb the water, add a little more water;
      • Cover the mixture and let it steep for 10 minutes (more steeping time is fine too);
      • Then add the steeped herbs to the other recipe ingredients.
    • 1/8 cup basil - dry or fresh chopped;
    • 1/8 cup rosemary - dry or fresh chopped;
    • 1/8 cup sage; 
    • Optional:
      • 1/8 cup anise;
      • 1/8 cup fennel; 
      • 1/8 cup fenugreek;
      • 1/8 cup dried parsley or fresh chopped;
      • 1/8 cup mint;
      • 1 tbs fresh chopped ginger;
      • 1 tbs Ceylon cinnamon
  • 1 tsp dry, 4powdered eggshell (1/2 tsp/per every 1 lb of meat)
If making the fully cooked version of the recipe - ow heat setting (i.e. 3 to 4 just for long enough to start the food cooking and then turn the heat down to 2 and just let the pot simmer for an hour or two. If you are making a single batch of food and have a crock pot  the food can be cooked on low heat setting in the crock pot.

When you are ready to feed your dog the food...

3.0 Toppings to Add at Meal Time

Sprinkle/add/mix the following on top of the food when ready to serve in bowl:
  • 6Brewers yeast or nutritional yeast, NOT Bakers yeast!
    • 1 tsp for every 30 pounds of body weight
    • Do not use Brewer's Yeast if your dog or cat:
      •  Has Crohn's disease;
      • Is on Antidepressants SSRIs - i.e. Reconcile - 'Doggie Prozac'
      • Is on conventional anti-fungal drugs;
      • Has a yeast infection.
  • Broth (meat or vegetable) or Bone Broth - recipe, daily dosage, health benefits are provided here.
  • Cheese shredded or cubed - optional ingredient (use low fat if your dog has inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis)
    •  Cheddar cheese, mozzarella or Swiss cheese, or; cottage cheese; 
      • Daily Dosage:
        • Small size dogs and cats - 1 ounce 
        • Medium size dogs - 1 1/2 ounce  
        • Large dogs -2 ounces 
        • Extra large dogs - 2 1/2 ounces
  • Probiotic - to understand the importance of including a probiotic in your dog or cat's daily diet read here
  • You can use yogurt, kefir or sauerkraut or purchase a good quality probiotic supplement;
    • If you want to use Yogurt  or Kefir read here to understand benefits, dosage, how to select a good yogurt or kefir for your dog, cat;
    • If you want to use sauerkraut read here to understand how to select a good product for your dog or cat;
    • If you prefer to make your own sauerkraut you can find a recipe here;
    • If you want to use a probiotic supplement read here to understand how to choose a good supplement - most propbiotic supplements are junk, so it is important to know how to select a good product.
    • Use low fat yogurt or kefir rather than higher fat if your dog has inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis.
  • A small piece of fatty fish such as wild Atlantic Salmon, mackerel or sardine;
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
    • For information on the many health benefits, options and selecting a good product, etc you can read here. You can use option one, two or three (or a combination of two of the options) as noted just below or read about other options here.
    • Option One - Fish oil (use human food grade);
      •  Norwegian or Arctic krill oil, wild Alaskan salmon oil, Norwegian or Arctic cod liver oil (use only a good brand like Carson's);
      • Follow the dosage provided below or the product manufacturer's dosage:
          • X-Small Dogs and Cats 1 -14 lbs – 250mg 
          • Small Dogs and Cats 15-29 lbs – 500mg 
          • Medium Dogs 30-49 lbs – 1000mg 
          • Large Dogs 50 -79 lbs – 1500mg  
          • X-Large Dogs 80 lbs and up – 2000mg  
    • Option Two - Cold Pressed Organic Flax Seed Oil;
      • Use only human food-grade cold pressed flax seed oil;
        • Only use flax seed oil that is found in the refrigerated section of the grocery store or natural food store;
        • Preferably organic flax seed oil, as non-organic can be very high in pesticide residue;
      • Daily Dosage:
        • 1 tsp per every 11lbs body weight (1 ml per every 1 kg body weight);
    • Option Three - 5Ground Flax seeds, whole or ground Chia seeds;
      • Daily Dosage;
        • 1/2 tsp for tea cup dogs 2 to 4 lbs; 
        • 1 tsp for toy dogs 5 to 15 lbs; 
        • 1 tbs for small dogs 16 to 25 lbs; 
        • 1.5 tbs for medium-small dogs 26 to 39 lbs 
        • 2 tbs for medium-large size dogs 40 to 70 lbs 
        • 2.5 tbs for large dogs 71 lbs to 90 lbs  
        • 3 tbs for x-large dogs 91+ pounds  
  • A pinch of ground vitamin C tablet – if your dogs don’t eat citrus fruit, berries or veggies that are high in vitamin C. My dogs get lots of vitamin C from fresh fruit and from fresh lemon so they do not require ground vitamin C.
  • Digestive Enzymes:
    •  To aid digestion and promote full absorption of nutrients;
      • Option One - I use fresh minced papaya;
      • Option Two - use a digestive enzyme supplement in in capsule or powder form;
        • Look for a papain-based (digestive enzyme extract from papaya) or bromelain-based (digestive enzyme extract from pineapple). Choose one that does not have added fillers or other unnecessary ingredients such as sweeteners, food coloring and slipping agents. Follow the manufacturer's recommended daily dosage; 
    • If your dog has an inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis the lycopene in papaya is very beneficial.
    • Daily Dosage for Fresh Papaya
        • Small Size Dogs and Cats
          • ½  tsp to 1/8 cup
        • Medium Size dogs;
          •  1 tbs to ¼ cup
        • Large Size Dogs;
          • 2 tbs to ½ cup
  • Pumpkin Seeds;
    • You can buy whole, shelled, unsalted, raw pumpkin seeds at a natural food store - you can read about some of the benefits of pumpkin seeds here.
      • Use a food processor to grind the pumpkin seeds ;
      • Daily Dosage
        • 1/2 tbs small dogs;
        • 1 tbs medium size dogs;
        •  2 tbs large dogs.
  • Organ meats are very good for dogs and cats when provided in small amounts daily;
    • On a low heat cook some chicken liver (or other organ meat) in a little olive oil or coconut oil;
      • Store in a container in the refrigerator and add a piece to the food in your dog's or cat's food once a day;
  • Poultry, Red meat, Bone or Vegetable Both;
    •  As many dogs and cats do not take in enough water after eating consider adding some liquid to the food in your dog's and cat's bowl;
    • You can use this Homemade Broth Recipe - dosage to add to the food bowl is included in the recipe;
    • Add a sprinkle of Ceylon cinnamon on top of the food and stock...
  • Ceylon Cinnamon
    • You can also sprinkle a little ceylon cinnamon powder on top of the food. Cinnamon helps dissolve food particles - good for your dog's dental health and also aids with the digestion of food
If you are making this food for a kitten or cat you must add Taurine...

  • Minimum – 100 mg (one hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food;
  • Maximum – 300 mg (three hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food.
You can keep this food in the refrigerator for up to one week. If you make more than you will use in a week just freeze the additional food.

Notes

1Cooking Meat - avoid creating carcinogens in the meat...
When cooking meat (poultry, red meat, etc.) always cook it at a low temperature.
  • Cooking meat above 200 to 350 degrees Fahrenheit increases the amount of PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine) and other heterocyclic amines in the meat;
  • Heterocyclic amines are carcinogenic chemicals that form when meat is cooked at high temperatures.
2Home cooked v.s. canned lentils, chickpeas, legumes - avoid carcinogens...
 Although you can choose to use canned lentils and chickpeas it is best to cook them from 'scratch' yourself as canned products: 
  • Are known to contain BPA (a carcinogen), and;
  • Commercially prepared canned beans/legumes are cooked at a very high temperature for a short period of time. 
    • When foods are cooked at very high temps advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) form;
    • AGEs are compounds that stimulate cells to produce specific proteins that cause inflammation and can be toxic;
    • High heat also damages and/or destroys many nutrients.
3 Garlic - my dogs get fresh garlic on a daily basis. Garlic (unlike onion which is toxic for your dog) has many health benefits for your dog. Before cooking the garlic, chop, mince or crush the garlic and let it sit for 15 minutes at room temperature - this triggers a reaction that boosts the healthy enzymes in garlic to maximum output. If your dog is on blood thinners or cyclosporin, leave the garlic out of the recipe. Garlic is not to be given to cats or kittens. Garlic is not to be given to puppies under 6 months of age. For other cautions read
garlic.

4 Powdered Eggshell is high in calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulphur, silicon and zinc, and a few other (actually 27) vital elements for dogs. ½ tsp equals about 400 milligrams of absorbable calcium.

  • To make powdered eggshell:
  • Wash empty eggshells in a little warm water;
  • Place the shells on a dish or paper towel and let them air dry completely (i.e. for 24 hrs);
  • When dry, break the shells into pieces and then grind them using a mortar and pestle or coffee grinder;
  • Store the powdered eggshell in an airtight container.
5Flax seed must be ground not whole, Chia seeds can be whole or ground.
    6Nutritional brewer's yeast or nutritional yeast (not baker’s yeast) is high in B complex vitamins. B complex vitamins are very important for a dog's overall health, oral health and are also a natural flea repellent.  

    Pack walk with some of my dogs - small to large, all ages -
    they all eat the food prepared as per the recipe above.

    Below I am providing a Grain-Included Recipe...

    I am providing this recipe with grain-in for the following reasons:
    1. For those who have little choice but to include grain as their dog is allergic to most meats, root vegetables, squash, legumes, etc.
    1. For those people that insist on providing grains as part of their dog's diet;
      • So, if your dog does not have any of the issues noted in point 1 above, I strongly recommend that you use the grain-free recipe for the following reasons...
    Species inappropriate food/diets are the #1 cause of the top ten ailments for which people take their dog to the the Veterinarian's office...
     
    1. Periodontal Disease
    2. Ear Infections
    3. Skin Allergies
    4. Skin Infection
    5. Non-cancerous skin growth
    6. Upset Stomach
    7. Intestinal upset/diarrhea
    8. Arthritis
    9. Bladder Infection
    10. Under-active Thyroid – triggered by immune system or lack of iodine in the diet

    In addition  - it is of the utmost importance to use human grade grain products - not animal feed grade (most commercially produced dog food contains animal-feed grade grains).  Grain used in the production of animal feed is not screened for aflatoxins - a naturally occurring fungus (on grains). Aflatoxins are carcinogenic. Grains such as corn and soy are GMO in North America unless you are purchasing organic. Soy and alfalfa contain endocrine disruptors. Other grains if not organic, are high in pesticide residue.

    For more important notes on health cautions and interactions read all of my notes and comments provided just above and withing the Grain-free recipe preceding this section.


    Wholesome Grains Version…
     



    Chicken, Oats, Rice, Spinach, Lentils, Cottage Cheese…
    • Protein, Fat and essential nutrients - Meat:
        • 1.5 lb (minimum) to 2 lbs ground or finely chopped 1meat:
          • Poultry - chicken, turkey or duck, bones removed, or:
          • Fish - wild Alaskan salmon, mackerel, sardines, or;
          • Red meat - beef, bison, deer, etc. 
            • If your dog has food sensitivities don’t mix proteins, choose one source of meat protein per batch of food;
            • don't skim the fat off - the fat from the meat is an essential source of nutrition for your dog and cat; 
            •  For kittens and cats don't skimp - use the full quantity of protein (not the minimum)
      • Protein, Fat and essential nutrients - Cottage cheese:
      • Protein, carbohydrates, fiber and essential nutrients - Legumes:
        • 2 cups (16 oz):
          • Lentils - use a combination of yellow, brown or green lentils and/or cooked mashed chickpeas (see note 2)
          • For best results:
            • Pre-soak the uncooked lentils in water for at least 3 hours;
            • After soaking the uncooked lentils, drain the water (discard the water) and use a food processor or bender to mash/finely chop the softened lentils;
            • After soaking and mashing/chopping the lentils are ready to be cooked with the other recipe ingredients together in a pot or pressure cooker.
       
      • Protein and Fat - Additional Optional Ingredient:
        • 2 eggs 
      • Fat:
      • Carbohydrate, fibre
        • 1 cup brown rice;
        • 1 cup steel cut oats (or pot barley, not pearled barley), if you can't find steel cut oats you can used rolled oats;
      • Carbohydrate, essential nutrients, fiber, antioxidents:
        • 2 cups:
          • Vegetables and Fruit, fresh or frozen finely chopped:
            •  Carrots, Brussel sprouts, green beans, cauliflower, broccoli;
            •  Apples, pears, cherries or berries (i.e. cranberries, strawberries, blueberries, black berries, etc.);
        • 10 oz:
          • Fresh or frozen chopped spinach
      • Herbs
        •  4 cloves 3garlic, chopped or minced (for kittens and cats leave the garlic out of the recipe!)
        • 1/8 cup basil - dry or fresh chopped;
        • 1/8 cup rosemary - dry or fresh chopped;
        • 1/8 cup sage; 
        • Optional:
          • 1/8 cup anise;
          • 1/8 cup fennel; 
          • 1/8 cup dried parsley or fresh chopped;
          • 1/8 cup mint;
          • 1 tbs fresh chopped ginger;
          • 1 tbs Ceylon cinnamon
      • 1 tsp dry, 4powdered eggshell (1/2 tsp/per every 1 lb of meat)
       
      Put all ingredients in a pot and add only enough water to just barely cover ingredients. Put on a low heat setting (i.e. 3 to 4 just for long enough to start the food cooking and then turn the heat down to 2 and just let the pot simmer for an hour or two. If you are making a single batch of food and have a crock pot  the food can be cooked on low heat setting in the crock pot.

      When you are ready to feed your dog the food...

      Sprinkle/add/mix the following on top of the food when ready to serve in bowl:
      • 6Brewers yeast or nutritional yeast (NOT Bakers yeast!)
        • Cheese shredded or cubed;
        •  cheddar cheese, mozzarella or Swiss cheese, or; cottage cheese;
        • Yogurt 
        • Read here to understand benefits, dosage, how to select a good yogurt for your dog;
      •  A small piece of fatty fish such as wild Atlantic Salmon, mackerel or sardine;
      • Fish oil (use human grade) krill oil, wild Alaskan salmon oil, cod liver oil;
      • 5Ground flax seeds or Chia seeds;
      • A pinch of ground vitamin C tablet – if your dogs don’t eat citrus fruit, berries or veggies that are high in vitamin C. My dogs get lots of vitamin C from fresh fruit and from fresh lemon so they do not require ground vitamin C.
        • Ceylon Cinnamon
        • You can also sprinkle a little cinnamon powder on top of the food. Cinnamon helps dissolve food particles - good for your dog's dental health and also aids with the digestion of food.
    If you are making this food for a kitten or cat you must add Taurine...

    • Minimum – 100 mg (one hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food;
    • Maximum – 300 mg (three hundred milligrams ) of Taurine for every 1 kg (one kilogram) or 2.2 pounds of cat food.
     You can keep this food in the refrigerator for up to one week. If you make more than you will use in a week just freeze the additional food.

    Notes

    1Cooking Meat - avoid creating carcinogens in the meat...
    When cooking meat (poultry, red meat, etc.) always cook it at a low temperature.
    • Cooking meat above 200 to 350 degrees Fahrenheit increases the amount of PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine) and other heterocyclic amines in the meat;
    • Heterocyclic amines are carcinogenic chemicals that form when meat is cooked at high temperatures.
    2Home cooked v.s. canned lentils, chickpeas, legumes - avoid carcinogens...
     Although you can choose to use canned lentils and chickpeas it is best to cook them from 'scratch' yourself as canned products: 
    • Are known to contain BPA (a carcinogen), and;
    • Commercially prepared canned beans/legumes are cooked at a very high temperature for a short period of time. 
      • When foods are cooked at very high temps advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) form;
      • AGEs are compounds that stimulate cells to produce specific proteins that cause inflammation and can be toxic;
      • High heat also damages and/or destroys many nutrients.
    3 Garlic - my dogs get fresh garlic on a daily basis. Garlic (unlike onion which is toxic for your dog) has many health benefits for your dog. Before cooking the garlic, chop, mince or crush the garlic and let it sit for 15 minutes at room temperature - this triggers a reaction that boosts the healthy enzymes in garlic to maximum output. If your dog is on blood thinners or cyclosporin, leave the garlic out of the recipe.

    4 Powdered Eggshell is high in calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulphur, silicon and zinc, and a few other (actually 27) vital elements for dogs. ½ tsp equals about 400 milligrams of absorbable calcium.

    • To make powdered eggshell:
    • Wash empty eggshells in a little warm water;
    • Place the shells on a dish or paper towel and let them air dry completely (i.e. for 24 hrs);
    • When dry, break the shells into pieces and then grind them using a mortar and pestle or coffee grinder;
    • Store the powdered eggshell in an airtight container.
    5Flax seed must be ground not whole, Chia seeds can be whole or ground.
    • Daily dosage of Flax or Chia:
      • Tiny Dogs (4 lbs to 10 lbs) - ½ tbs  
      • Small Dogs (+10 lbs to 30 lbs) - 1 tbs  
      • Medium Dogs  (+30 lbs to 75 lbs)  - 1.5 tbs
      • Large Dogs (+75 lbs to 100 lbs) - 2 tbs
      • Extra Large Dogs (+100) - 2 to 3 tbs
    6Nutritional brewer's yeast or nutritional yeast (not baker’s yeast) is high in B complex vitamins. B complex vitamins are very important for a dog's overall health, oral health and are also a natural flea repellent.  

    Daily Dosage of Brewer’s or Nutritional Yeast:
    1 teaspoon per 30 pounds of body weight

    Notes

    1Cooking Meat - avoid creating carcinogens in the meat...
    When cooking meat (poultry, red meat, etc.) always cook it at a low temperature.
    • Cooking meat above 200 to 350 degrees Fahrenheit increases the amount of PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine) and other heterocyclic amines in the meat;
    • Heterocyclic amines are carcinogenic chemicals that form when meat is cooked at high temperatures.
    2Home cooked v.s. canned lentils, chickpeas, legumes - avoid carcinogens...
     Although you can choose to use canned lentils and chickpeas it is best to cook them from 'scratch' yourself as canned products: 
    • Are known to contain BPA (a carcinogen), and;
    • Commercially prepared canned beans/legumes are cooked at a very high temperature for a short period of time. 
      • When foods are cooked at very high temps advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) form;
      • AGEs are compounds that stimulate cells to produce specific proteins that cause inflammation and can be toxic;
      • High heat also damages and/or destroys many nutrients.
    3 Garlic - my dogs get fresh garlic on a daily basis. Garlic (unlike onion which is toxic for your dog) has many health benefits for your dog. Before cooking the garlic, chop, mince or crush the garlic and let it sit for 15 minutes at room temperature - this triggers a reaction that boosts the healthy enzymes in garlic to maximum output. If your dog is on blood thinners or cyclosporin, leave the garlic out of the recipe.

    4 Powdered Eggshell is high in calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulphur, silicon and zinc, and a few other (actually 27) vital elements for dogs. ½ tsp equals about 400 milligrams of absorbable calcium.

    • To make powdered eggshell:
    • Wash empty eggshells in a little warm water;
    • Place the shells on a dish or paper towel and let them air dry completely (i.e. for 24 hrs);
    • When dry, break the shells into pieces and then grind them using a mortar and pestle or coffee grinder;
    • Store the powdered eggshell in an airtight container.
    5Flax seed must be ground not whole, Chia seeds can be whole or ground.
    • Daily dosage of Flax or Chia:
      • Tiny Dogs (4 lbs to 10 lbs) - ½ tbs  
      • Small Dogs (+10 lbs to 30 lbs) - 1 tbs  
      • Medium Dogs  (+30 lbs to 75 lbs)  - 1.5 tbs
      • Large Dogs (+75 lbs to 100 lbs) - 2 tbs
      • Extra Large Dogs (+100) - 2 to 3 tbs
    6Nutritional brewer's yeast or nutritional yeast (not baker’s yeast) is high in B complex vitamins. B complex vitamins are very important for a dog's overall health, oral health and are also a natural flea repellent.  

    Daily Dosage of Brewer’s or Nutritional Yeast:
    1 teaspoon per 30 pounds of body weight